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GREEK COLOR THEORY AND THE FOUR ELEMENTS

A Cosmological Interpretation
Figures

J. L. Benson

Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries
2000

LIST OF FIGURES

Abbreviations follow Select Bibliography.

HALF-TONES
Fig. 1Alabaster vessel Iraq Museum, Baghdad from Warka Third quarter of fourth millennium B.C. H.0.92.

COLOR REPRODUCTIONS
Fig. 2Sample of Mediterranean marbles Antikenmuseum Berlin. After H. Mielsch, Buntmarmore aus Rom im Antikenmuseum Berlin (1985) pl. 15.
Fig. 3As fig. 85 (pl. 11)
Fig. 4Attic Protogeometric amphora British Museum London. 11th century B.C.
Fig. 5Attic Geometric amphora Kerameikos Museum inv. 2146 Athens. 9th century B.C.
Fig. 6Attic Geometric amphora NM inv. 804 Athens: detail of frieze. 8th century B.C.
Fig. 7Middle Protocorinthian IB kotyle British Museum 60.4-4.18: crouching hound by the Hound Painter. 2nd quarter 7th century B.C.
Fig. 8Protoattic amphora (loutrophoros) Louvre inv. CA 2985 Paris: procession, etc by the Analatos Painter. First quarter 7th century B.C.
Fig. 9Attic neck-amphora British Museum inv. B210: Achilles killing Penthesilea, attributed to Exekias. 3rd quarter 6th century B.C.
Fig. 10Attic blackfigure amphora Vatican Museum: Achilles and Ajax by Exekias. Ca. 530 B.C.
Fig. 11Opposite side of fig. 93 with Return of the Dioskouroi.
Fig. 12Attic bilingual amphora Staatliche Antikensammlung, Munich: symposia, attributed to the Andokides Painter Ca. 525 B.C.
Fig. 13Attic redfigure shoulder amphora Antikenmuseum Berlin: satyr and Hermes; attributed to the Berlin Painter. 500-490 B.C.
Fig. 14Attic blackfigure krater on white ground Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe: Odysseus and ram. Late 6th century B.C.
Fig. 15Attic white ground cup Staatliche Antikensammlungen inv. 2645 Munich: maenad; attributed to the Brygos Painter. 500-490 B.C.
Fig. 16Attic white ground lekythos NM inv. 1818 Athens: deceased and living; attributed to the Achilles Painter. 3rd quarter 5th century B.C.
Fig. 17Roman mosaic NM Naples: Battle of Issos. 1st century B.C.
Fig. 18Terracotta pediment plaque NM Syracuse: Gorgo holding offspring. Late 7th century B.C.
Fig. 19Wooden panel NM Athens from Pitsa: scene of sacrifice. 3rd quarter 6th century B.C. H. EAA V, opp. p. 202.
Fig. 19 bisDomenico Veneziano Panel Uffizi Gallery, Florence "Madonna and Child with Saints", ca. 1445
Fig. 20Attic white ground lekythos NM Athens: figure and stele, assigned to R Group. Ca. 430 B.C.
Fig. 21Hellenistic tomb painting at Kazanlak.
Fig. 22 Hellenistic tomb painting at Kazanlak.
Fig. 23Limestone tomb facade Lefkadia, Greece Painted architectural forms. Ca. 300-275 B.C. H.8.15.
Fig. 24Detail of fig. 23: Hermes.
Fig. 25Limestone tomb facade Vergina, Greece Painted architectural forms of "Philip's Tomb". Ca. 340-330 B.C. H.5.3. See M. Andronicos 1989, fig. 57.
Fig. 26Interior tomb wall Vergina, Greece Portion of "Tomb of Persephone" showing Demeter. H.2.50. Ca. 350-340 B.C. Andronicos 1989, fig. 46.
Fig. 27Interior tomb wall. Detail from "Tomb of Persephone": head of Hades. Andronicos 1989, fig. 51.
Fig. 28Detail of fig. 23: bust of Rhadamanthys.
Fig. 29Roman fresco NM Naples from Pompeii: Perseus liberating Andromeda. 1st century B.C./1st A.D.
Fig. 30Roman fresco NM Naples from Pompeii: Theseus triumphant. 1st century B.C./1st A.D.
Fig. 31Roman fresco Vatican Museum Vatican City: Odyssey Landscape I. Second style, 1st century B.C.
Fig. 32Roman fresco Vatican Museum Vatican City: Aldobrandini Wedding. 1st century B.C./1st A.D.
Fig. 33Oil on canvas Galleria Doria Pamphili: Aldobrandini Wedding by N. Poussin 17th century A.D. H.2.42 G. Torselli, La Galleria Doria Pamphili (Rome 1969) fig. 385.
Fig. 34Roman mosaic NM Naples from Pompeii: stage scene. 1st century B.C.
Fig. 35Mosaic Terme Museum Rome inv. 171. Nilotic scene from Via di Porta Lavernate, Rome. Ca. 250 A.D. H. (field) 1.85
Fig. 36Roman fresco NM Naples from Pompeii: Rocky sanctuary. 1st century. A.D.
Fig. 37Terracotta figurine NM Athens inv. 1986.271 Pella: lady in heavy garments. Hellenistic period. See The Search for Alexander (1981) New York Graphic Society, number 148, pl. 22-D.
Fig. 38Goethe's Dark Spectrum Photo Hetzel
Fig. 39Goethe's Dark Spectrum Photo Hetzel
Fig. 40Goethe's Light Spectrum Photo Hetzel
Fig. 41Goethe's Light Spectrum Photo Hetzel
Fig. 42Diagram clarifying rule of atmospheric colors in light/dark conditions Photo Hetzel.
Fig. 43View illustrating principle: red results from dark before light Photo Hetzel.
Fig. 44View illustrating principle: blue results from light before dark Photo Hetzel.
Fig. 45Diagram illustrating additive colors Photo Hetzel
Fig. 46Diagram illustrating subtractive colors Photo Hetzel.
Fig. 47Preliminary form of Goethe's color wheel Photo Hetzel.
Fig. 48Diagrammatic articulation of Goethe's color wheel Photo Hetzel.

CREDITS

Besides individuals mentioned in the above list, I wish to acknowledge the generous cooperation of the following in establishing my illustrations: Dr. Gertrud Platz (Berlin); Dr. Dyfri Williams (London); Dr. Friedrich Hamsdorf (Munich); Dr. Jutta Stroszeck (Athens); Prof. Dr. Klaus Fittschen (Athens); Dr. Michael Maas (Karlsruhe); Dr. Vincent Brinkmann (Munich); Dott. Giuseppe Voza (Siracusa); Stephano de Caro (Naples); Don Raffaelle Farina sdb (Vatican); Prof. Ronald Wiedenhoeft (Littleton, Colorado).


Alabaster vessel Iraq Museum, Baghdad from Warka Third quarter of fourth millennium B.C.  H.0.92..

Sample of Mediterranean marbles Antikenmuseum Berlin.

Sample of Mediterranean marbles Antikenmuseum Berlin.

Attic Protogeometric amphora British Museum London.  11th century B.C.

Attic Geometric amphora Kerameikos Museum inv. 2146 Athens.  9th century B.C.

Attic Geometric amphora NM inv. 804 Athens: detail of frieze.  8th century B.C.

Middle Protocorinthian IB kotyle British Museum 60.4-4.18: crouching hound by the Hound Painter.  2nd quarter 7th century B.C.

Protoattic amphora (loutrophoros) Louvre inv. CA 2985 Paris: procession, etc by the Analatos Painter. First quarter 7th century B.C.

Attic neck-amphora British Museum inv. B210:  Achilles killing Penthesilea, attributed to Exekias. 3rd quarter 6th century B.C.

Attic blackfigure amphora Vatican Museum:  Achilles and Ajax by Exekias.  Ca. 530 B.C.  H.0.61.

Attic blackfigure amphora Vatican Museum:  Opposite side of vase depicting Achilles and Ajax by Exekias, with Return of the Dioskouroi.  Ca. 530 B.C.  H.0.61.

Attic bilingual amphora Staatliche Antikensammlung, Munich: symposia, attributed to the Andokides Painter Ca. 525 B.C.

Second view of Attic bilingual amphora Staatliche Antikensammlung, Munich: symposia, attributed to the Andokides Painter Ca. 525 B.C.

Attic redfigure shoulder amphora Antikenmuseum Berlin:  satyr and Hermes; attributed to the Berlin Painter.  500-490 B.C.

 Attic blackfigure krater on white ground Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe:  Odysseus and ram.   Late 6th century B.C.

Attic white ground cup Staatliche Antikensammlungen inv. 2645 Munich:  maenad; attributed to the Brygos Painter.  500-490 B.C.

 Attic white ground lekythos NM inv. 1818 Athens:  deceased and living; attributed to the Achilles Painter.  3rd quarter 5th century B.C.

Roman mosaic NM Naples: Battle of Issos.  1st century B.C.  H.  Ca.

Terracotta pediment plaque NM Syracuse:  Gorgo holding offspring.  Late 7th century B.C. H.

Wooden panel NM Athens from Pitsa:  scene of sacrifice.  3rd quarter 6th century B.C.  H.

Domenico Veneziano's "Madonna and Child with Saints", ca. 1445

Attic white ground lekythos NM Athens:  figure and stele, assigned to R Group.  Ca. 430 B.C.

Hellenistic tomb painting at Kazanlak.

Hellenistic tomb painting at Kazanlak (detail).

Limestone tomb facade Lefkadi, Greece Painted architectural forms.  Ca. 300-275 B.C.  H.8.15.

Detail of Limestone tomb facade Lefkadi, Hermes.  Ca. 300-275 B.C.  H.8.15.

Limestone tomb facade Vergina, Greece Painted archtectural forms of "Philip's Tomb".  Ca. 340-330 B.C.  H.5.3.

Interior tomb wall Vergina, Greece Portion of "Tomb of Persephone" showing Demeter.  H.2.50.  Ca. 350-340 B.C.

Interior tomb wall.  Detail from "Tomb of Persephone": head of Hades.

Detail of Limestone tomb facade Lefkadi, bust of Rhadamanthys.  Ca. 300-275 B.C.  H.8.15.

Roman fresco NM Naples from Pompeii:  Perseus liberating Andromeda.  1st century B.C./1st A.D.  H.

Roman fresco NM Naples from Pompeii:  Theseus trimphant.  1st century B.C./1st A.D.  H.

Roman fresco Vatican Museum Vatican City:  Odyssey Landscape I.  Second style, 1st century B.C.  H.

Roman fresco Vatican Museum Vatican City:  Aldobrandini Wedding.  1st century B.C./1st A.D.  H.

Oil on canvas Galleria Doria Pamphili:  Aldobrandini Wedding by N. Poussin 17th century A.D.  H.2.42

Roman mosaic NM Naples from Pompeii:  stage scene.  1st century B.C.  H.

Mosaic Terme Museum Rome inv. 171.  Nilotic scene from Via di Porta Lavernate, Rome.  Ca. 250 A.D.  H. (field) 1.85

Roman fresco NM Naples from Pompeii:  Rocky sanctuary.  1st century. A.D.  H.

Terracotta figurine NM inv. 1986.271 Pella:  lady in heavy garments.  Hellenistic period.

Goethe's Dark Spectrum

Goethe's Dark Spectrum

Goethe's Light Spectrum

Goethe's Light Spectrum

Diagram clarifying rule of atmospheric colors in light/dark conditions

View illustrating principle:  red results from dark before light

View illustrating principle:  blue results from light before dark

Diagram illustrating additive colors

Diagram illustrating subtractive colors

Preliminary form of Goethe's color wheel

Diagrammatic articulation of Goethe's color wheel