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GREEK SCULPTURE AND THE FOUR ELEMENTS

A Psycho-Historical Investigation
Figures

J. L. Benson

Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries
2000

LIST OF FIGURES

Abbreviations follow Select Bibliography except some explained within the List of Figures.
Half-tones
Fig. 1Bronze statuette Metropolitan Museum, New York: Herakles (?) and Centaur. 8th century B.C.
Fig. 2Bronze horse Antikenmuseum Berlin 8th century B.C. H.0.16.
Fig. 3a-bBronze Statuette Museum of Fine Arts Boston: Apollo (votive of Mantiklos). H.0.20 Early 7th century B.C.
Fig. 4Ivory panel of bed-head Baghdad(?) Figure grasping palmetto-tree. From Nimrud Later 8th century B.C. M. Mallowan, Nimrud and its Remains v. II (London 1966) fig. 391.
Fig. 5Bronze statuette NM Delphi Mid-7th century B.C. H.0.20.
Fig. 6Limestone statue NM Cairo: Ranufer Ca. 2500 B.C.
Fig. 7Marble kouros Metropolitan Museum, New York, Ca. 620 B.C. G. Richter 1969, Fig. 54.
Fig. 8Marble kore Pergamon Museum Berlin Ca. 580 B.C. G. Richter 1969, Fig. 66.
Fig. 9Marble kouros NM Athens from Anavysos Ca. 530/525 B.C. G. Richter 1969, Fig. 85.
Fig. 10Attic blackfigure amphora Vatican Museum: Achilles and Ajax. Ca. 530 B.C. E. Buschor, Die griechischen Vasen (Munich 1940) fig. 130.
Fig. 11Opposite side of fig 10 with Return of the Dioskouroi. Ca. 570 B.C.
Fig. 12Marble panel North frieze of Treasury of the Siphnians, Delphi: (detail, gods and giants). Ca. 525 B.C. H.0.64.
Fig. 13Identification as fig.12.
Fig. 14 Marble statuary East pediment of Old Athena Temple, Acropolis: Athena and Giant. 520-510 B.C. H.2.0 G. Richter 1969, fig. 107.
Fig. 15Marble panel (detail) NM Athens: base of athlete's statue 510-500 B.C. H.0.317. G. Richter 1969, fig. 109.
Fig. 16Attic redfigure kylix (detail) MvWagner Museum inv. 1479 Würzburg: comast and hetaira; attributed to the Brygos Painter. 500-480 B.C. pl. 154.
Fig. 17Marble metope (no. 21) Treasury of the Athenians, Delphi 500-480 B.C. After de la Coste Messelière, Fouilles de Delphes IV, 4 (Paris 1957) pl. 60.
Fig. 18Marble statuary Glyptothek Munich from Aphaia Temple, Aigina. 500-480 B.C. D. Ohly 1976, pl. 73.
Fig. 19Attic redfigure kylix (detail) Staatliche Museen Berlin inv. 2309: satyrs cavorting; attributed to the Dokimasia Painter "perhaps 480".
Fig. 20Attic redfigure kantharos (detail) Musees Royaux de l'Archeologie et d'Historie, Brussels A718: Herakles and Amazons. 490/480 B.C.
Fig. 21Attic redfigure belly amphora (detail) Staatliche Museen Berlin F 2159: scene of wrestling. Ca. 525-520.
Fig. 22Marble kouros NM Athens from Ptoon (no. 20). 515-500 B.C. H.1.03. G. Richter 1970(2), fig. 450.
Fig. 23Marble kouros NM Athens no. 3686 from Keos. 530-525 B.C. H. "overlife-size" G. Richter 1970(2), fig. 419.
Fig. 24Back view of fig. 23. G. Richter 1970(2), fig. 422.
Fig. 25Back view of fig. 22. G. Richter 1970(2), fig. 451.
Fig. 26Marble kouros Acropolis Museum no. 692 from Athens. 500-480 B.C. H.0.87. G. Richter 1970(2), fig. 464.
Fig. 27Back view of fig. 26. Richter 1970(2), fig. 465.
Fig. 28 Bronze statuette NM Athens no. 6445 from Athens. 500-480 B.C. H.0.273. G. Richter 1970(2), fig. 474.
Fig. 29Back view of fig. 28. Richter 1970(2) fig. 475.
Fig. 30Bronze kouros Louvre Paris from sea at Piombino. 500-480 B.C. (?). H.1.15. M. Collingnon I, p. 312.
Fig. 31Marble kouros Acropolis Museum no. 698 ("Kritios Boy"). Ca. 480 B.C. H.0.86.
Fig. 32Side view of fig. 31.
Fig. 33Attic redfigure Panathenaic amphora (detail) MvWagner Museum Würzburg (from Vulci): Herakles; by the Berlin Painter. 500-490 B.C.
Fig. 34Attic redfigure neck amphora (detail) Harrow School (England): satyr; by the Kleophrades Painter 500-490 B.C. J. Boardman 1975, fig. 140.
Fig. 35Attic redfigure cup (detail) Berlin Staatliche Museen inv. 2269 from Chiusi; lovers; by the Kiss Painter. 500-480 B.C.
Fig. 36Attic redfigure belly amphora (detail) MvWagner Museum Würzburg: warrior's return; by the Kleophrades Painter. 500-490 B.C. Furtwängler-Reichhold. Griechische Vasenmalerei: Auswahl hervorragender Vasenbilder. (Munich 1909) pl. 113
Fig. 37Another scene from the foregoing: revellers.
Fig. 38Marble statue NM Naples: Roman copy of Doryphoros of Polykeitos. Original: Ca. 440 B.C. H.2.12.
Fig. 39Repeats fig. 31
Fig. 40Bronze statue NM Delphi: charioteer. 480-470 B.C. H.1.80.
Fig. 41Marble statue NM Olympia: Oinomaos from east pediment. Ca. 470 B.C. H.2.95.
Fig. 42Marble statue NM Olympia: Apollo from west pediment. Ca. 460 B.C. H.
Fig. 43Marble metope NM Olympia Zeus Temple: Augean Stables. 470-460 B.C. H.1.60. Yalouris, Olympia, fig. 202.
Fig. 44Marble metope NM Olympia Zeus Temple: Apples of the Hesperides. 470-460 B.C. H.1.60.
Fig. 45Marble kouros NM Athens no. 45: Omphalos Apollo (Roman copy). Original: 460-450 B.C. H.1.77. M. Collingnon I, fig. 15.
Fig. 46Bronze statue NM Reggio di Calabria: bearded man. 460-450 B.C.
Fig. 47Repeats fig. 38.
Fig. 48Marble metope British Museum London Parthenon no. 31: Lapith and centaur 450-440 B.C. H.1.48.
Fig. 49Marble panel NM Athens: Eleusinian votive relief. 440-430 B.C. H.2.40. M. Collingnon I, fig. 68.
Fig. 50Marble statue NM Athens: "Diadoumenos" (Roman copy). 420-410 B.C. H.1.86. E. von Mach, Greek Sculpture (Boston 1903) pl. XXII fig. 3
Fig. 51Marble statues Erechtheion Athens: "Karyatids" 420-410 B.C. H.2.31.
Fig. 52Marble panel British Museum London: from frieze of Apollo Temple at Phigaleia: Amazonomachy. 410-400 B.C. H.0.64.
Fig. 53Marble grave relief NM Athens inv. 3624: Hegeso. 410-400 B.C. H.1.49. M. Collingnon I, pl. IV.
Fig. 54Marble statue Staatliche Museen Munich: Eirene and Ploutos (Roman copy). Original: 380-370 B.C. H.1.99. W. R. Biers AG, fig. 9-9.
Fig. 55Marble statue NM Olympia: Hermes and Dionysos. Ca. 350 B.C. H.2.13. W. R. Biers AG, fig. 9-20.
Fig. 56Bronze statue NM Athens from Piraeus: Athena. Ca. 350 B.C.
Fig. 57Marble panel British Museum London from Halikarnassos: Amazonomachy no. 1022 ascribed to Timotheos. Ca. 350 B.C. H.0.89.
Fig. 58Marble grave stele NM Athens from Ilissos. 350-340 B.C. H.1.68. M. Collingnon (1911), fig. 82.
Fig. 59Marble panel NM Athens from Mantineia: three muses. Ca. 375 B.C. M. Collingnon (1911), p. 192.
Fig. 60Marble statue Metropolitan Museum, NY: wounded Amazon (Roman Copy, probably after Polykleitos) Ca. 440-430 B.C. G. Richter 1969, fig. 163.
Fig. 61Bronze statue NM Athens from Cape Artemision: god with missile. 470-460 B.C. H.2.09.
Fig. 62Marble statue Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden: Maenad after Skopas (Roman copy). 350-340 B.C.
Fig. 63Marble statue Agora Museum Athens: akroterion from Stoa of Zeus. 410-400 B.C.
Fig. 64Marble grave stele Kerameikos Museum Athens: Dexileos. Ca. 390 B.C. H.1.75. M. Collingnon I, fig. 89.
Fig. 65Marble statue NM Delphi: Agias. 350-340 B.C. H.1.97.
Fig. 66Marble statue Vatican Museum: Scraper by Lysippos (Roman copy). 340-330 B.C. H.2.05 E. von Mach, fig. 16 (opp. p. 290).
Fig. 67Bronze statuette Louvre Paris: Alexander with the lance. 330-300 B.C.
Fig. 68Marble statue Vatican Museum: Apollo Belvedere attributed to Leochares (Roman copy). Original: 330-300 B.C. H.2.24. M. Collingnon I, fig. 161.
Fig. 69Bronze statue Galerie Beyeler Basel "Homme qui marche" 1980 H.1.82. "Alberto Giacometti" by Alexander Watt in Studio International Art January 1964 p.24. (Priam Publications London).
Fig. 70Wooden statue Egyptian Museum Cairo Ka'aper from Sakkara. Ca. 2400 B.C. H.1.10. H. Schaefer and W. Andrae, Die Kunst des Alten Orients (1928) p. 239L.
Fig. 71Gilded wooden statuette Egyptian Museum Cairo Tutankhamen as Horus from Sakkara. 1340 B.C. H.0.695.
Fig. 72Bronze statuette Metropolitan Museum NY Herakles from Arkadia Ca. 530 B.C. H.0.12.
Fig. 73Bronze statuette Staatliche Museen Berlin (West) Zeus from Dodona. Ca. 460 B.C. H.0.138.
Fig. 74Limestone metope NM Delphi Cattle theft by heroes from monopteros of Sikyon. Ca. 560 B.C. H.0.58.
Fig. 75Marble coffin NM Istanbul the "Alexander Sarcophagus" 320-300 B.C. G. Richter SSG, fig. 748.
Fig. 76Marble statue Lateran Museum Rome Sophokles 335-330 B.C. M. Collingnon I, fig. 178.
Fig. 77Marble statue Ny Carlsberg Glyptothek Copenhagen: Demosthenes (Roman Copy) 300-280 B.C. H.2.07. G. Richter SSG, fig. 757.
Fig. 78Marble Statue NM Rome: Gaul and wife 230-200 B.C. H. 2.11. M. Collingnon I, fig. 258.
Fig. 79Marble panel Pergamon Museum Berlin: Athena and Giants from Altar of Pergamon. 230-200 B.C. H.2.30. M. Collingnon I, fig. 272.
Fig. 80Marble statue Capitoline Museum Rome: drunken woman. 2nd - 1st century B.C. H.0.92.
Fig. 81Marble statue Louvre Paris: "Borghese Warrior". 2nd - 1st century B.C. H.1.55. M. Bieber 1961, fig. 688.
Fig. 82Marble statue Louvre Paris: Aphrodite of Melos 2nd - 1st century B.C. H.2.04. M. Bieber 1961, fig. 674.
Fig. 83Marble statue NM Naples: Orestes and Elektra. 2nd - 1st century B.C. H.1.50. M. Collingnon I, fig. 347.

CREDITS

I wish to acknowledge the generous cooperation of the following persons in establishing the illustrations in this volume: Halil Oezek (Istanbul); Alain Pasquier (Paris); Stephano de Caro (Naples); Dr. Dyfri Williams (London); Drssa Anna Somala Mura (Rome); Dr. Irma Wehgarten (Wuerzburg); Kalliope Christophis (Athens); Prof. Dr. Klaus Fittschen (Athens); Dr. Mohamed Abdul Shimy (Cairo)

Bronze statuette Metropolitan Museum, New York: Herakles (?) and Centaur.  8th century B.C. H.0.115.

Bronze horse  Antikenmuseum Berlin-Charlottenburg 8th century B.C.  H.0.16.

Bronze Statuette Museum of Fine Arts Boston: Apollo (votive of Mantiklos).  H.0.20 Early 7th century B.C.

Bronze Statuette Museum of Fine Arts Boston: Apollo (votive of Mantiklos).  H.0.20 Early 7th century B.C.

Ivory panel of bed-head Baghdad(?) Figure grasping palmetto-tree.

Bronze statuette  NM Delphi Mid-7th century B.C.  H.0.20.

Limestone statue NM Cairo: Ranufer Ca. 2500 B.C. H.1.73.

Marble kouros Metropolitan Museum, New York, Ca. 620 B.C. H.1.93.

Marble kore  Pergamon Museum Berlin  Ca. 580 B.C.  H.1.95.

Marble kouros  NM  Athens from Anavysos  Ca. 530/525.  H.1.95.

Attic blackfigure amphora  Vatican Museum:  Achilles and Ajax.  Ca. 530 B.C.  H.0.61

Attic blackfigure amphora Vatican Museum:  Opposite side of vase depicting Achilles and Ajax by Exekias, with Return of the Dioskouroi.  Ca. 530 B.C.  H.0.61.

Marble panel North frieze of Treasury of the Siphnians, Delphi:  (detail, gods and giants).  Ca. 525 H.0.64.

Identification as fig.12.

Marble statuary  East pediment of Old Athena Temple, Acropolis:  Athena and Giant.  520-510 B.C.  H.2.0

Marble panel (detail) NM Athens: base of athlete's statue 510-500 B.C.  H.0.317.

Attic redfigure kylix (detail) MvWagner Museum inv. 1479 Würzburg: comast and hetaira; attributed to the Brygos Painter.  500-480 B.C.

Marble metope (no. 21) Treasury of the Athenians, Delphi 500-480 B.C.  H.0.67.

Marble statuary Glyptothek Munich from Aphaia Temple, Aigina.  500-480 B.C.

Attic redfigure kylix (detail) Staatliche Museen  Berlin inv. 2309:  satyrs cavorting; attributed to the Dokimasia Painter "perhaps 480"

Attic redfigure kantharos (detail) Musees Royaux de l'Archeologie et d'Historie, Brussels A718: Herakles and Amazons.  490/480 B.C.

Attic redfigure belly amphora (detail) Staatliche Museen  Berlin F 2159:  scene of wrestling.  Ca. 525-520.

Marble kouros  NM Athens from Ptoon (no. 20).  515-500 B.C. H.1.03.

Marble kouros  NM Athens no. 3686 from Keos. 530-525 B.C.  H. "overlife-size"

Back view of fig. 23.

Back view of Marble kouros  NM Athens from Ptoon (no. 20).  515-500 B.C. H.1.03.

Marble kouros  Acropolis Museum no. 692 from Athens.  500-480 B.C.  H.0.87.

Back view of fig. 26.

Bronze statuette  NM Athens no 6445 from Athens. 500-480 B.C.  H.0.273.

Back view of fig. 28.

Bronze kouros  Louvre Paris from sea at Piombino.  500-480 B.C. (?).  H.1.15.

Marble kouros  Acropolis Museum no. 698 ("Kritios Boy").  Ca. 480 B.C.  H.0.86.

Side view of Marble kouros  Acropolis Museum no. 698 ("Kritios Boy").  Ca. 480 B.C.  H.0.86.

Attic redfigure Panathenaic amphora (detail) MvWagner Museum Würzburg (from Vulci): Herakles; by the Berlin Painter.  500-490 B.C.

Attic redfigure neck amphora (detail)  Harrow School (England): satyr; by the Kleophrades Painter 500-490 B.C.

Attic redfigure cup (detail)  Berlin Staatliche Museen inv. 2269 from Chiusi; lovers; by the Kiss Painter.  500-480 B.C.

Attic redfigure belly amphora (detail)  MvWagner Museum Würzburg: warrior's return; by the Kleophrades Painter.  500-490 B.C.

Attic redfigure belly amphora (detail)  MvWagner Museum Würzburg: revellers; by the Kleophrades Painter.  500-490 B.C.

Marble statue  NM Naples:  Roman copy of Doryphoros of Polykeitos.  Original:  Ca. 440 B.C.  H.2.12.

Marble kouros  Acropolis Museum no. 698 ("Kritios Boy").  Ca. 480 B.C.  H.0.86.

Bronze statue  NM Delphi:  charioteer.  480-470 B.C.  H.1.80.

Marble statue  NM Olympia:  Oinomaos from east pediment.  Ca. 470 B.C.  H.2.95.

Marble statue  NM Olympia:  Apollo from west pediment.  Ca. 460 B.C.  H.

Marble metope  NM Olympia Zeus Temple:  Augean Stables.  470-460 B.C.  H.1.60.

Marble metope  NM Olympia Zeus Temple:  Apples of the Hesperides.  470-460 B.C.  H.1.60.

Marble kouros  NM Athens no. 45: Omphalos Apollo (Roman copy).  Original: 460-450 B.C.  H.1.77.

Bronze statue  NM Reggio di Calabria:  bearded man.  460-450 B.C.  H.

Marble statue  NM Naples:  Roman copy of Doryphoros of Polykeitos.  Original:  Ca. 440 B.C.  H.2.12.

Marble metope  British Museum London Parthenon no. 31:  Lapith and centaur 450-440 B.C.  H.1.48.

Marble panel  NM Athens:  Eleusinian votive relief.  440-430 B.C.  H.2.40.

Marble statue  NM Athens: "Diadoumenos" (Roman copy).  420-410 B.C.  H.1.86.

Marble statues  Erechtheion Athens: "Karyatids" 420-410 B.C.  H.2.31.

Marble panel  British Museum London: from frieze of Apollo Temple at Phigaleia:  Amazonomachy.  410-400 B.C.  H.0.64.

Marble grave relief  NM Athens inv. 3624:  Hegeso.  410-400 B.C.  H.1.49.

Marble statue  Staatliche Museen Munich:  Eirene and Ploutos (Roman copy).  Original: 380-370 B.C.  H.1.99.

Marble statue  NM Olympia:  Hermes and Dionysos.  Ca. 350 B.C.  H.2.13.

Bronze statue  NM Athens from Piraeus:  Athena. Ca. 350 B.C.  H.

Marble panel British Museum London from Halikarnassos:  Amazonomachy no. 1022 ascribed to Timotheos.  Ca. 350 B.C.  H.0.89.

Marble grave stele  NM Athens from Ilissos.  350-340 B.C.  H.1.68.

Marble panel  NM Athens from Mantineia:  three muses.  Ca. 375 B.C.  H.

Marble statue  Metropolitan Museum, NY:  wounded Amazon (Roman Copy, probably after Polykleitos) Ca.  440-430 B.C.  H.

Bronze statue  NM Athens from Cape Artemision:  god with missile.  470-460 B.C.  H.2.09.

Marble statue  Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden:  Maenad after Skopas (Roman copy).  350-340 B.C.  H.

Marble statue  Agora Museum Athens:  akroterion from Stoa of Zeus.  410-400 B.C.  H.

Marble grave stele  Kerameikos Museum Athens:  Dexileos.  Ca. 390 B.C.  H.1.75.

Marble statue  NM Delphi:  Agias.  350-340 B.C.  H.1.97.

Marble statue Vatican Museum:  Scraper by Lysippos (Roman copy).  340-330 B.C.  H.2.05

Bronze statuette  Louvre Paris:  Alexander with the lance.  330-300 B.C.  H.

Marble statue  Vatican Museum:  Apollo Belvedere attributed to Leochares (Roman copy).  Original:  330-300 B.C.  H.2.24.

Bronze statue Galerie Beyeler Basel "Homme qui marche"  1980  H.1.82.

Wooden statue  Egyptian Museum Cairo Ka'aper from Sakkara.  Ca. 2400 B.C.  H.1.10.

Gilded wooden statuette Egyptian Museum Cairo Tutankhamen as Horus from Sakkara.  1340 B.C.  H.0.695.

Bronze statuette Metropolitan Museum NY Herakles from Arkadia Ca. 530 B.C.  H.0.12.

Bronze statuette Staatliche Museen Berlin (West) Zeus from Dodona.  Ca. 460 B.C.  H.0.138.

Limestone metope NM Delphi Cattle theft by heroes from monopteros of Sikyon.  Ca. 560 B.C.  H.0.58.

Marble coffin  NM Istanbul the "Alexander Sarcophagus"  320-300 B.C.  H.

Marble statue Lateran Museum Rome Sophokles 335-330 B.C.  H.

Marble statue  Ny Carlsberg Glyptothek Copenhagen:  Demosthenes (Roman Copy) 300-280 B.C.  H.2.07.

Marble Statue  NM Rome: Gaul and wife 230-200 B.C.  H. 2.11.

Marble panel Pergamon Museum Berlin:  Zeus and three Giants from Altar of Pergamon.  230-200 B.C.  H.2.30.

Marble statue Capitoline Museum Rome:  drunken woman.  2nd - 1st century B.C.  H.0.92.

Marble statue Louvre Paris: "Borghese Warrior".  2nd - 1st century B.C.  H.1.55.

Marble statue Louvre Paris: Aphrodite of Melos  2nd - 1st century B.C. H.2.04.

Marble statue NM Naples: Orestes and Elektra.  2nd - 1st century B.C.  H.1.50.