Educator, sociologist, scholar, and author. Includes personal and professional correspondence; administrative and teaching records; research data; manuscripts of published and unpublished speeches, articles and books; photographs; and Bond family papers, especially those of Horace Bond’s father, James Bond. Fully represented are Bond’s two major interests: black education, especially its history and sociological aspects, and Africa, particularly as related to educational and political conditions.
Correspondents include many notable African American educators, Africanists, activists, authors and others, such as Albert C. Barnes, Claude A. Barnett, Mary McLeod Bethune, Arna Bontemps, Ralph Bunche, Rufus Clement, J.G. St. Clair Drake, W.E.B. Du Bois, Edwin Embree, John Hope Franklin, E. Franklin Frazier, W.C. Handy, Thurgood Marshall, Benjamin E. Mays, Pauli Murray, Kwame Nkrumah, Robert Ezra Park, A. Phillip Randolph, Lawrence P. Reddick, A.A. Schomburg, George Shepperson, Carter G. Woodson and Monroe Work.
Background on Horace Mann Bond
Horace Mann Bond was born on November 8, 1904 in Nashville, Tennessee. He was the son of James and Jane Alice Browne Bond, the fifth of their six children. His mother was a graduate of Oberlin College, and his father, a minister, held degrees from Berea College and Oberlin Seminary. James Bond’s career included such positions as financial agent for Lincoln Institute in Kentucky, college pastor at Talladega College in Alabama, minister of an Atlanta church and director of the Kentucky Commission on Interracial Cooperation. Jane Bond was a teacher for many years and pursued graduate work in sociology at Oberlin College.
Horace Mann Bond attended the elementary and high schools of Lincoln Institute, Talladega College and Atlanta University. He completed secondary school at Lincoln Institute in 1919. He began college work at Lincoln University in Oxford, Pennsylvania in the fall of 1919, and received an A.B. degree from that institution in 1923.
In 1924 Bond accepted a position as director of the school of education at Langston University in Oklahoma. That same year, he began graduate work at the University of Chicago. He received a master’s degree in education in 1926. In 1936 Bond earned his PhD. degree in the history of education. His thesis,”Social and Economic Influences on the Public School Education of Negroes in Alabama, 1865-1930,” was awarded the University of Chicago’s Susan Colver Rosenberg Prize in June 1937 for the best thesis in the social sciences. It was published in 1939 as Negro Education in Alabama: A Study in Cotton and Steel. Bond’s first book, Education of the Negro in the American Social Order, had been published in 1934.
Between 1926 and 1936 Bond pursued both graduate study and employment at various educational institutions. For the academic year 1927-1928, he was director of the extension program at the State Normal School in Montgomery, Alabama. In the fall of 1928, he accepted what was to be the first of several positions with Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee. Bond served as head resident of a men’s dormitory, taught several classes in education and history, and acted as research assistant to Charles S. Johnson of the social sciences department. During the 1929 and 1930 summer school sessions of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, Bond conducted special classes under the auspices of the American Social Hygiene Association. From 1930 to 1931 Bond was employed at Fisk as a part-time lecturer in education. He worked full-time from 1932 to 1934 as an instructor and as a field worker for student and alumni promotion. In 1933 Bond supervised a Fisk project for the Tennessee Valley Authority which surveyed the social, economic and educational conditions of the black population in selected counties in seven states. From the fall of 1937 to 1939, Bond was head of Fisk’s department of education.
It was during his first tenure at Fisk that Horace Bond met Julia Washington, a 1929 graduate of the university. They were married in 1930. Their first child, Marguerite Jane, was born in 1938; Horace Julian was born in 1940; James George, in 1944.
Beginning in the fall of 1929 and continuing for two years, Bond participated in a survey of black schools and the achievement of black children in North Carolina, Louisiana and Alabama. During this time, Bond visited more than 700 urban and rural black schools and administered standardized tests to nearly ten thousand children. The project was sponsored by the Julius Rosenwald Fund, a private foundation that concentrated its efforts in black and southern education. Bond received some financial support for graduate study from the Fund; his association with it continued for many years. As part of another investigation group of the Rosenwald Fund known as the School Exploration Group, Bond and his wife were assigned to study an isolated rural community, Star Creek, in Louisiana during the last months of 1934. The Bonds were directed to observe and report on black schools, social and economic conditions and race relations in the rural South.
In January 1935 Bond began work as dean of Dillard University in New Orleans, Louisiana. Dillard University combined the institutions of Straight University and New Orleans University with a design to implement some of the principles of “progressive education.” The first classes of the new institution were held in September 1935, with Bond teaching courses in education and psychology as well as attending to his administrative responsibilities.
Horace Mann Bond accepted his first college presidency in 1939. The Fort Valley Normal and Industrial School was being incorporated into the Georgia state system of public schools for blacks as the Fort Valley State College. Bond agreed to serve as acting president for one year; he remained as president until the fall of 1945.
While at Fort Valley, besides carrying out regular administrative duties and teaching, Bond worked toward the improvement of college-community relationships and acted to upgrade area black public schools. In conjunction with the Conference of Presidents of Negro Land Grant Colleges and the United States War Department, Bond was also active in the planning of vocational and academic training programs for black soldiers and veterans.
In 1945 Bond was elected to the presidency of Lincoln University in Oxford, Pennsylvania. He was the fifth president of the institution, which was founded in 1854 to provide a higher education in the arts and sciences for “youth of African descent,” and, although he himself did not make this distinction, he was its first black president. Much of Bond’s work at Lincoln was directed toward public relations; during his twelve years there he delivered hundreds of addresses and managed to increase state financial aid to the institution. In 1950 Bond inaugurated for Lincoln one of the nation’s first institutes for African studies. He was largely responsible for a rise in the number of African students attending the institution. On a community level, Bond participated in efforts to desegregate local public facilities; his activities included campaigning for a position on the Lower Oxford Board of School Directors in 1947.
Bond pursued extensive research into the history of Lincoln University and the surrounding area. The project was begun as part of the university’s 1954 centennial celebration, but Bond’s investigation continued well beyond that year. Most of the writing based on his research was published posthumously (1976) as Education for Freedom: A History of Lincoln University, Pennsylvania.
Bond resigned his presidency of Lincoln in June 1957 and was named President Honorarius for life.
While at Lincoln University, in 1949, Horace Bond made the first of many trips to Africa. On this initial visit, under the sponsorship of the African Council on Arts and Research, he made a survey of secondary education in British West Africa. Subsequent trips also included educational consultation, as well as participation in Ghanaian independence celebrations and Liberian mining expeditions.
Bond’s interest in Africa and African-American relations led to his affiliations as founding member or officer with several organizations, including the American Society for African Culture, the African Studies Association, the International African American Corporation, and the Africa-America Institute.
In December 1957 Bond delivered the annual Inglis Lecture at the Harvard University Graduate School of Education. His address, “The Search for Talent,” dealt with the educational traditions that limited the finding of talent to children of educationally and financially privileged families. The Search for Talent was published in 1959.
Horace Bond had accepted the position of dean of the Atlanta University School of Education in Atlanta, Georgia in July 1957. In addition to fulfilling his role as teacher and administrator there, he engaged in several research projects, including an extensive study of black doctorates. In 1966 Bond relinquished his duties as dean to become director of the Atlanta University Bureau for Educational and Social Research, a position which allowed him to concentrate almost exclusively on educational research. He retired from the University in 1971.
Horace Mann Bond died on December 21, 1972 in Atlanta.
|1904||Birth; Nashville, Tennessee|
|1923||Lincoln University, Pennsylvania; A.B. degree; instructor, education department (fall semester)|
|1924-1926||Langston University, Oklahoma; director and instructor, education department|
|1924||First professional publication,|
|1926||University of Chicago; M.A. degree; full-time student 1926-1927, 1931-1932|
|1927-1928||Alabama State College; director, extension program|
|1928-1929||Fisk University, Tennessee; instructor, education department; research assistant, social sciences department|
|1929-1931||Julius Rosenwald Fund survey of southern rural black schools|
|1930||Marriage to Julia Agnes Washington|
|1932-1934||Fisk University, Tennessee; associate professor, education department|
Publication of Education of the Negro in the American Social Order
Julius Rosenwald Fund field work in Franklinton, Louisiana
|1935-1937||Dillard University, Louisiana; dean|
|1936||University of Chicago; PhD. degree|
|1937-1939||Fisk University, Tennessee; head, education department|
|1939||Publication of thesis as Negro Education in Alabama: A Study in Cotton and Steel|
|1939-1945||Fort Valley State College, Georgia; president|
|1945-1957||Lincoln University, Pennsylvania; president|
|1949||First trip to Africa|
|1957||Inglis Lecture at Harvard University Graduate School of Education|
|1957-1966||Atlanta University; dean, School of Education|
|1966-1971||Atlanta University; director, Bureau of Educational and Social Research|
|1967||Publication of A Study of Factors Involved in the Identification and Encouragement of Unusual Academic Talent Among Underprivileged Populations|
|1972||Death; Atlanta, Georgia|
|1976||Publication of Education for Freedom: A History of Lincoln University, Pennsylvania|
Contents of Collection
The Papers of Horace Mann Bond, who lived from 1904 to 1972, consist of personal and professional correspondence; administrative and teaching records; research data; manuscripts of published and unpublished speeches, articles and books; and Bond family papers. Fully represented in the Papers are Bond’s two self-proclaimed major interests: black education, especially its history and sociological aspects, and Africa, particularly as related to educational and political conditions. The Papers span the years 1830 to 1979, with the bulk of the material falling in the period 1926 to 1972.
General correspondence, covering over forty years of Bond’s exchanges with friends and professional contacts, accounts for approximately five percent of the collection. It includes correspondence for which Bond created no specific subject files. Access to particular correspondents is provided by the Series 2 description and by a selective name index to the correspondence (see Appendix).
Alphabetically arranged subject files make up nearly a third of the collection. Bond’s affiliations with various educational, cultural and community organizations are well represented in these files. Of special interest are the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People folders, including some material relating to Bond’s work on the 1954 United States Supreme Court desegregation case; field work reports to the Rosenwald Fund; and correspondence with and concerning W. E. B. Du Bois, Langston Hughes and Charles S. Johnson.
A large portion of the Papers documents Bond’s career at several educational institutions. Atlanta University is represented primarily by over 300 family histories produced by Bond’s students. Material relating to Bond’s faculty and administrative posts at other institutions is substantive in content although not in bulk.
Material regarding Bond’s educational research makes up approximately ten percent of the collection. His study of the economic and educational backgrounds of black doctorates is of particular interest, as are several less extensive projects concerning Southern educational institutions and standardized tests. A few items relate to Bond’s PhD. thesis research on the history of black education in Alabama.
Writings in the collection span five decades, from a 1927 Crisis article to the posthumously published history of Lincoln University. They include newspaper articles written for the Associated Negro Press in the early 1930s; Bond’s first book, Education of the Negro in the American Social Order, published in 1934; and the Harvard University Inglis Lecture presented by Bond in 1957.
The Bond family papers consist primarily of correspondence belonging to James Bond, Horace Bond’s father, describing his activities in black and interracial organizations in Kentucky in the 1920s. Other material, more limited in scope, includes correspondence between Bond and his wife, children and brothers.
Bond’s African interests are especially well represented in various parts of the collection. Included in the Papers are extensive correspondence and printed material pertaining to the continent; files relating to Kwame Nkrumah, the American Society for African Culture and the International African American Corporation; correspondence with potential African students at Lincoln University; research data on African students in American colleges; and numerous writings.
Each series is described in detail below. Horace Mann Bond established most of the subject categories within series; the staff of Special Collections and University Archives, in the process of integrating loose material, added others. Unless otherwise noted, papers within folders are arranged chronologically by year, month and day, with undated material following all dated material.
Series and folder numbers appearing in parentheses, e.g. (4: 23), identify the locations of materials mentioned in the series descriptions. Cross-referencing of files is indicated by the use of “see” and “see also” preceding the series and folder designation.
Material removed from normal series location includes originals of oversize materials, newspaper clippings, and other items that have been copied for use in the collection, and whole issues of The New York Times and Time Magazine. The copies are in normal series location, while the originals are to be found in Series 11. A microfilm copy of “The Negro as an American Protestant Missionary in Africa,” a dissertation written by W.C. Harr in 1945 at the University of Chicago, was transferred to the University of Massachusetts Library Microforms Collection. Only the relevant portions of periodical issues have been retained. About eleven linear feet of duplicate copies of materials, mostly printed, have been removed.
This collection is organized into eleven series:
- Series 1. Bond Family Papers, 1892-1971
- Series 2. General Correspondence, 1926-1972
- Series 3. Subject Files, 1926-1971
- Series 4. Institutional Files, 1919-1972
- Series 5. Research Files, 1910-1971
- Series 6. Writings, 1926-1972
- Series 7. Photographs, 1913-1979
- Series 8. Printed Material, 1912-1972
- Series 9. Oversize Material, 1931-1971
- Series 10. Restricted Material, 1935-1966
- Series 11. Originals of Copied Material
|Series 1. Bond Family Papers||1892-1971||7 boxes (3.5 linear feet)|
The series is arranged alphabetically by individual’s name, with a file of general correspondence following all other material.
Scope and content:
Series I consists primarily of the correspondence of various members of Horace Mann Bond’s family (see Appendix).
The papers of James Bond, Horace Mann Bond’s father (1863-1929), make up the bulk of the series. Consisting primarily of carbon-copy typescripts of outgoing letters from 1924 through 1928, the correspondence (1:5-19) documents James Bond’s work as Secretary of Colored Work with the Kentucky Young Men’s Christian Association and as director of the Kentucky Commission on Interracial Cooperation. Letters to his family, friends, business associates and others deal with a variety of personal, social and political topics, including racial discrimination on streetcars in Louisville, the 1926 World YMCA Conference in Finland, and the academic progress of the Bond children. James Bond worked for some years on an autobiography, which he called “Life on the Racial Margin.” Included in his papers (1:20-21) are handwritten autobiographical notes and sketches, a typewritten manuscript, and a transcript of the work edited by his son Horace. The miscellaneous papers belonging to James Bond (1:22-23) consist largely of minutes, reports, and other undated material relating to Commission on Interracial Cooperation and YMCA matters. Also included are notes for a newspaper column James Bond wrote in the late 1920s titled “Interracially Speaking.” A file of newspaper clippings (1:24) collected by and regarding James Bond range from an 1892 article he wrote for the Berea College Reporter to notices of his death on 20 January 1929.
Correspondence between Horace Mann Bond and his siblings includes letters from brother James Maxwell Bond (1:26) during his tenures as dean of Dillard University and president of the University of Liberia. It was this brother who adopted the name James after the death of brother James Palmer Bond, acceding to their father’s request that one member of every generation in the Bond family carry the name James. The papers of James Palmer Bond (1:27) include correspondence as well as detailed explanations of numerous inventions regarding aviation, motion pictures, and subterranean communities. General family matters are discussed in correspondence from brothers Gilbert (1:1) and Thomas (1:34) and sister Lucy (1:32). The files for each brother and sister also contain any papers relating to the spouse, children, and grandchildren of those individuals.
Series I also includes correspondence and printed material pertaining to Horace Mann Bond’s wife, Julia Washington Bond (1:30-31). In addition to correspondence with her husband, children, grandmother (“Baby”) and others, are dance and music programs, newsletters and assorted printed material from Pearl High School in Nashville, where her father was principal, and Fisk University. Julia Bond received a graduate library degree from Atlanta University in 1964; a copy of her thesis appears in the file.
Papers relating to Horace and Julia Bond’s three children include correspondence and financial statements regarding Marguerite Jane’s attendance at the Cambridge School in Massachusetts (1:33) and Horace Julian’s years at the George School in Pennsylvania (1:3-4). Horace Julian Bond’s papers also include compositions and undated plays written by him.
The general file on the Bond family (1:35-36) consists of correspondence regarding Horace Mann Bond’s gathering of information for a Bond family history, arrangements for the publication of a family history, and miscellaneous family matters.
|Series 2. General Correspondence||1926-1972||9 boxes (4.25 linear feet)|
Scope and content:
Series 2 is a miscellany of incoming and outgoing letters for which no specific files appear elsewhere in the Papers. The general correspondence provides information about Bond’s major interests, and includes letters of courtesy, as thank-you notes and compliments on speeches; personal business; inquiries and responses about housing, academic invitations to speak and consult; friendly correspondence; and intellectual discourse. Correspondence spans over 40 years of Bond’s exchanges, with the most continuous record of correspondence occurring between 1940 and 1960.
Personal correspondence in the Series includes long-term communication with former classmates and professional associates. These include publisher Wendell Dabney, educators Roy Davenport and Cecil Halliburton, race relations advocate T. Edward Davis, PanAfricanist J. G. St. Clair Drake, and educator and publisher I. J. K. Wells.
Long-term but more formal correspondence occurs with West Virginia State College president John W. Davis, Bond’s University of Chicago graduate associate Clark Foreman, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College president William H. Gray, childhood acquaintance and educator Eugene D. Raines, Journal of Negro Education editor Charles H. Thompson, Alabama State Teachers College president H. Councill Trenholm, and southern educator John T. Williams.
1926-1935 Correspondence from 1926 through 1935 is relatively sparse but gives a fair representation of Bond’s work during these years with the American Social Hygiene Association, Langston University, the State Teachers College at Montgomery, Alabama and other institutions and organizations. Most of Bond’s communication with sociologist Robert Ezra Park, black education specialist Ambrose Caliver, and Rosenwald Fund Explorer Allison Davis took place in this period.
1936-1940 The correspondence generated in these years deals increasingly with research and publication projects, as in correspondence with A. A. Schomburg at the New York Public Library and editors of publications such as the Journal of Negro Education and the National Urban League’s Opportunity. Significant correspondence includes that with E. Franklin Frazier at Howard University and with writer Donald F. Jones. Of special interest are a 28 May 1937 critical response by Bond regarding a book about slavery, and correspondence with the Board of Home Missions. A letter to I. J. K. Wells in May of 1936 provides a fairly detailed description of Bond’s educational and professional activities up to that time.
1941-1945 Correspondence during the World War 2 years includes miscellaneous items reflecting wartime domestic and travel inconveniences. Correspondence, especially that with Joseph V. Baker, pertains to Bond’s association with the development of vocational education, the education and reeducation of military veterans, and efforts to increase black employment in industry. Information about the general conditions of black higher education in the South is contained in correspondence with J. W. Holley and in 9 July 1945 correspondence with Rufus Clement.
Significant personal correspondence beginning during this period occurs with Kenneth Bright, Thelma Clement-Boozer and Lewis Wade Jones. Subjects discussed range from music to the frustrations of military life. Correspondence on 8 May 1942 with E. Washington Rhodes, one-time editor of the Washington Post, recounts an episode in 1924 when Rhodes told Bond that he would “never be worth a damn.”
1946-1956 General correspondence during Bond’s tenure as president of Lincoln University emphasizes Bond’s public life. Much of the correspondence consists of invitations to speak and to serve on various educational, civic and race relations committees, and of letters to and from Bond responding to various publications and speeches. Significant correspondence relating to black rights and PanAfricanism occurs with Edgar T. Thompson, professor of sociology and anthropology at Duke University, in March 1950; with Samuel E. Morison on 26 February 1951; and with J. G. St. Clair Drake and Marguerite Cartwright.
Other correspondence during this period includes brief, critical comments by Bond on the historical handling of education by colonialists in Indonesia (Mar 1949 and 12 Apr 1952); and a 3 Jan 1956 statement regarding the concept of equality. Correspondence with Robert C. Weaver describes some of the political difficulties associated with Bond’s Lincoln University presidency, on 29 Mar 1956.
Correspondence of personal interest includes exchanges with writer and former classmate Melvin B. “Cap” Tolson and with former student Martin Kilson; as well as with such long-term correspondents as T. Edward Davis.
1957-1962 Correspondence of the late 1950s and early 1960s reflects the desegregation and civil rights activities of the period. Inquiries from and responses to college African studies departments and references to student demonstrations are frequent. Bond’s support of the students is made clear in his letter of 15 Apr 1960 to former president Harry S. Truman. The attitudes of some black administrators concerning the demonstrations are described in letters of 27 Apr and 5 May 1960.
Academic inquiries about Africa and about the history and sociology of the South and Pennsylvania are also frequent; questions came from research groups, professors, teachers and students of all ages. Bond’s responses were usually generous. Federal government offices also sought Bond’s advice, as in correspondence with James C. Evans of the office of the Secretary of Defense (13 May 1960) and with William Weathersby of the United States Information Agency (17 May and 19 June 1961).
Additional special interest correspondence during this period includes a 10 Sept 1958 letter to Stuart Innerst in which Bond discusses the history of black jail and prison populations, an extensive 5 April 1960 response to Max Lerner’s reference to “physic disabilities” in which Bond discusses black achievement, and Bond’s responses to Carleton Putnam’s Race and Reason (15 and 20 July 1962).
Also from this period is Bond’s brief note of praise to E. Franklin Frazier on 28 Mar 1962, and correspondence with former student Virginia Durr dealing with a public service television show which had depicted Africans as unfit for freedom (13 June, 1 July and 3 July 1962).
1963-1967 Several inquiries during this period refer to Bond’s study of the origins of black doctorates; detailed responses appear on 25 Oct 1963 and 12 Mar 1964, the latter containing ideas for further research. A 15 Nov 1963 letter responds to a question about federal aid to black education in terms of the doctorates study. Other significant correspondence includes a 10 Dec 1963 interview in which Bond describes the “man-made caste” system in the United States, and a circa April 1964 statement by Bond on the effects of racial imbalance on children.
1968-1972 General correspondence towards the end of Bond’s life is increasingly miscellaneous and incomplete. Of special interest are letters of 27 Sept 1968 and 1 Oct 1968 which discuss Bond’s son Horace Julian, and Nigerian affairs; and Bond’s 26 Oct 1968 response to an inquiry about the advisability of removing Little Black Sambo from circulation at the Toledo Public Library.
Access to specific correspondents or letters is aided by a selective index to the correspondence (see Appendix) and by the following detailed description.
|Series 3. Subjects Files||1926-1971||70 boxes (34.75 linear feet)|
Series 3 makes up approximately one third of the collection. The series consists of alphabetically arranged subject files representing many of Bond’s personal and professional interests and affiliations. While several files include routine papers such as financial material (3:167-208) and correspondence regarding speaking engagements (3:147-165), the bulk of Series 3 provides substantial information on Bond’s activities throughout his lifetime. Subject files pertaining to Africa and education predominate; these topics and others covered in Series 3 are discussed in detail in the following description.
AFRICA – Organizations
Bond participated as member or officer in numerous organizations representing African business and cultural interests.
Especially in the early 1960s, he was active in facilitating cooperation between Liberian, United States and Swedish mining interests in Liberia, primarily under the auspices of the International African American Corporation (IAAC). The IAAC file (3:229-253) documents the concession agreement which granted rights to explore, develop and mine minerals in Liberia, and which required the formation of a development company, the Liberian American Minerals Company (LAMCO). Materials in the file include correspondence; annual and quarterly reports; geological maps; stock quotations and stockholder notices; and minutes. Also included are papers relating to W. V. S. Tubman, president of the Republic of Liberia.
Bond was on the board of directors of the Council on Race and Caste in World Affairs (CORAC) and one of its representatives to the first Congress of Black Writers and Artists in Paris in 1956. The CORAC file (3:111-113) contains correspondence relating to Bond’s participation in the 1956 Congress and to other activities with which it was associated, working papers for meetings, financial and progress reports. Correspondence, press releases, agenda and informal notes associated with the Summit Meetings of Negro Leaders held in 1958 and 1959 are also included in the file. Bond attended the first of these Summit meetings as a representative of CORAC and the American Society of African Culture.
The American Society of African Culture (AMSAC) was organized after the 1956 Congress, under the sponsorship of CORAC. AMSAC was affiliated with an international Society of African Culture, which originated in France. Its purpose was to broaden cross-cultural understanding between Africa and the United States. Bond served as the organization’s first president and on its executive council. The AMSAC file (3:78-91) contains extensive correspondence, often with executive director John A. Davis, concerning operating principles, African students and visitors, and ideas for research. Also included are newsletters, agenda, annual reports, bibliographies, programs and applications to AMSAC for jobs and fellowship grants.
The AMSAC Second Congress of Black Writers and Artists file (3:92) consists of materials for the international meeting of the Society of African Culture. Bond was part of the AMSAC delegation to this meeting. Materials include correspondence, memoranda dealing with the conference theme, the responsibility of black leaders towards unity and solidarity of black culture-, delegate lists and publicity for the meeting; and miscellaneous notes.
The Africa-America Institute was founded in 1953 to foster closer relations between the peoples of the United States and Africa through a variety of projects and continuing programs. The Institute administered scholarships for African students in the United States and Africa, placed United States teachers in schools and colleges in African nations where requested, disseminated information about Africa in the United States, and brought about exchanges of leaders between the United States and Africa. Bond served on the board of trustees and held the positions of president and director of the Institute.
The Institute file (3:49-61) consists primarily of minutes, reports, copies of the African-American Bulletin and other printed material.
The African Studies Association was founded in 1957 to promote scholarship in African topics. The materials in the file (3:63-64) include programs and notes of annual meetings, newsletters, rosters of American scholars studying African issues, and an abstract of Bond’s “African-American Relations Through Colleges for Negroes.”
The All African Student Union of the Americas was organized to increase communication among African students in North America and to discuss and publicize theories and actions for African self–sufficiency and solidarity. Bond served on its advisory board. Materials in the file (3:66-68) include newsletters; programs, minutes, reports, address transcriptions and working papers for annual meetings and conferences; and limited correspondence.
AFRICA – Trips
From 1949 to 1963, Bond made at least sixteen trips to Africa. Materials documenting these travels are arranged chronologically by trip date and consist of correspondence, invitations, programs,, itineraries, clippings and other printed material. Photographs relating to Bond’s African visits are filed separately in Series 7.
The most fully documented trip is Bond’s first, in 1949 (3:25-28). The invitation to visit Africa was issued by Lincoln University alumni of West Africa; the main purpose of the trip was for Bond to inspect and make recommendations about the school system of West Africa. Bond’s extravagant welcome from the people of West Africa is evidenced by newspaper clippings and correspondence. Other materials include Bond’s written statements about the significance of the trip to him as an African-American, press releases, and welcome addresses. A film of this trip is in 7:73 in videotape copy.
Several Africa trips in the early 1950s dealt primarily with Bond’s role in negotiations towards United States investment in the development of natural resources in Africa. The July 1957 trip (3:35) related to the involvement of American corporate interests in a Volta River and Liberian mineral project (see also 3:217).
Trips of December 1958 (3:36-38), December 1961 (3:44), and September 1963 (3:46-47) relate primarily to activities of the American Society of African Culture.
In December 1958, Bond participated in the AMSAC-sponsored All-African People’s Conference in Ghana as president of AMSAC. Bond attended the ceremonies of the opening of the organization’s offices in Lagos in December of 1961 (3:44). He also represented AMSAC in September 1963 at inaugural ceremonies for the William Leo Hansberry College of African Studies in Nigeria.
Most other trips were in response to invitations to attend celebrations and meetings. In June 1960 (3:39-40) Horace and Julia Bond attended ceremonies commemorating Ghana’s new status as a Republic of the British Commonwealth. The trip of October 1960 (3:41) was in response to an invitation issued by the Eastern Region of Nigeria during the period of the Nigerian Independence Celebrations. The trip of November 1961 (3:43) resulted from an invitation to attend the ceremony of the formal inauguration of the University of Ghana. In December 1962 (3:45), Bond chaired a panel discussion at the First International Congress of Africanists in Ghana.
AFRICA – Correspondence
An extensive correspondence file (3:2-14) spans over twenty-five years of Bond’s personal, academic and business associations relating to Africa. Bond’s acknowledgements of hospitality received during visits to Africa and retrospective descriptions of various aspects of those visits make up much of the file. Also included is considerable correspondence, largely personal, from Africans and appeals from Bond to various organizations for financial assistance for African students in the United States. Other correspondence includes exchanges with Africans in liaison offices, United States State Department personnel, and such organizations as the African Students Association, the American Committee on Africa, the American Friends Service Committee and the University of Liberia. Press releases and memoranda pertaining to Africa are also contained in the file.
AFRICA – Printed Material
The Africa printed material file (3:17-24) consists of miscellaneous printed materials from a variety of sources including both popular and scholarly United States publishers, African embassies, United States governmental departments, private organizations with African interests, and, to a lesser extent, publications of African origin. Oversize African newspapers are filed separately in Series 9.
EDUCATION – Organizations
Horace Bond was associated with numerous educational organizations, many of which are represented in Series 3. Subject files dealing with educational organizations generally include correspondence, printed material, programs for meetings and conferences and other printed matter, copies of addresses and working papers, miscellaneous notes taken by Bond during various meetings, and travel and hotel receipts. Bond’s most extensive work with educational organizations was during the 1950s and 1960s. Several of the more prominent or substantively represented organizations are described below.
Most of the materials in the Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools file (3:97) relate to work of that organization toward improved educational opportunities for students in black institutions of higher learning, including programs and correspondence dealing with annual meetings in 1935 and 1954, and minutes and correspondence dealing with activities of the organization’s research committee in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Bond served the organization as speaker and as a member of the research committee.
The Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools file (3:266) relates primarily to observation teams on which Bond served in 1952, for evaluations of the William Penn Charter School in Philadelphia and the Maryland State College and Princess Ann branches of the University of Maryland. Materials include magazines and catalogues about the institutions.
In 1948, Bond initiated a campaign to the National Scholarship Service and Fund for Negro Students for a definition of integrated education that would be sensible of the non-segregated nature of predominantly black institutions as well as of predominantly white institutions. By 1952 that organization introduced a program for what was called “two-way integration.” Most of the correspondence of the National Scholarship Service and Fund for Negro Students file (3:276-277) pertains to that issue.
The years best represented in the United Negro College Fund file (3:378-381) are the mid-1950s, while Bond served on its budget committee during his presidency at Lincoln University. Materials include press releases and radio scripts, in addition to extensive correspondence and printed material.
Among other educational organizations represented primarily by correspondence relating to Bond’s speaking engagements and/or printed material are the Georgia Committee on Teacher Education (3:214); the Board for Fundamental Education (3:105); the American Council on Education (3:70); the National Education Association (3:274); and various institutions, including North Carolina College (3:295), Tuskegee Institute (3:372) and Harvard University (3:220).
EDUCATION – Government Agencies
Several education related subject files pertain to Bond’s work in conjunction with United States government agencies. The President’s Committee on Education Beyond the High School (3:299-303) considered such general problems as federal aid to and changing national needs in higher education. Bond served subcommittees via participation in meetings and correspondence containing recommendations for activities. The file includes correspondence, minutes, reports and printed material.
The United States State Department file (3:386) consists primarily of correspondence concerning educational needs and programs, such as the Department of State Intern Program Training Division, recruitment for foreign service, the “executive reserve,” and the Conference on Africa South of the Sahara.
Bond was also active with the Subcommittee on Education of the Joint Army and Navy Committee on Welfare and Recreation, the latter a division of the United States War Department (3:387-388). The bulk of the file consists of chapters from Bond’s “Military History of the Negro in Africa and the New World”; other materials include correspondence and printed materials.
The White House Conference on Children and Youth file (3:391) describes preparations for the conference and contains correspondence, including that related to Bond’s background paper, “Wasted Talent”, copies of the “Conference Reporter” and other printed material.
Bond was also involved in the United Nations work. The UNESCO general file (3:374) includes correspondence, programs, agendas, and conference objectives and evaluation of the United States National Commission for UNESCO activities. The file also contains correspondence relevant to Bond’s nomination for the directorship of the UNESCO department of education in 1962.
During the summer of 1948, Bond served as chairman of the Committee on Social Understanding for the UNESCO Seminar on Teacher Training at Ashridge College in Berkhamsted, England. The UNESCO Ashridge seminar file (3:375-377) includes correspondence, notes, biographical sketches of staff and delegates, reports, relevant journals and memorabilia.
EDUCATION – Research
From the mid-1920s through the 1930s, Bond’s work was frequently related to the educational research projects of the Julius Rosenwald Fund. The Rosenwald Fund file (3:312-314) contains business and personal correspondence, including that with the Fund’s president, Edwin Embree; Alabama building agent reports; and forms for applications and recommendations for Rosenwald scholarships and fellowships. Other materials in the file refer to projects in which Bond actively participated, including an outline of data to be obtained in the 1929-1931 survey of southern schools, the planning and development of Dillard University, and chronicle descriptions and reports of the 1937-1938 Special Study of Rural Elementary Schools of the South (see also Series 4 and 5).
The Rosenwald Fund Star Creek project file (3:315-318) consists of materials relevant to Bond’s work for the Fund in Star Creek (Franklinton), Louisiana in 1934. Materials include correspondence, an outline of the research activities Horace and Julia Bond were to perform, a diary kept during their residence in Star Creek, recommendations for the improvement of the schools, and a description of the parish in which Star Creek was located.
The bulk of the file consists of a narrative titled “Forty Acres and a Mule” and several versions of “The First Lynching of 1935″. The file concludes with numerous genealogical materials.
The Southeastern Education Laboratory was founded in June 1966, funded primarily by the federal government. Bond was a participant in the early planning stages of the research organization, a contributor to the original proposal, and served on its board of directors until June of 1969.
The Southeastern Education Laboratory’s purposes were the research, development and dissemination of educational ideas concerned with such topics as better utilization of human resources, desegregation, curriculum, and teacher education. The file (3:325-359) consists primarily of printed and mimeographed materials pertaining to the organization itself and to many specific research topics pursued through its funding and organizational support. Also included are correspondence, proposals, minutes, by-laws, memoranda, vitae and research reports.
EDUCATION – Other
In addition to the activities mentioned above, Bond taught a sociology course on “The Negro in American Life” at Garrett Biblical Institute in the summer of 1944 (3:212); and wrote a script titled “Public Education after the Civil War” for the 1969 Columbia University Black Heritage television series (3:110). Materials in the Hampton Institute file (3:219) relate to Bond’s preparation of an historical analysis of that institution in 1944. He also participated in meetings of the Cleveland Conference (3:107-109) and the Spring Conference on Education (3:367) — both informal gatherings of educators and other interested persons assembled annually to discuss educational issues. Several other conferences relating to education are documented in the Ford Foundation file (3:209).
RACE RELATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES
A number of subject files relate to organizations dealing with African-American issues and specifically addressing civil rights and race relations concerns. Materials in these files date from 1931 to 1972.
The American Foundation for Negro Affairs was organized in 1967 to act as a national body for the purpose of cataloging African–American progress and subsequently of charting ten-year goals.
Bond served as vice president and the chairman and director of the organization’s national research commission. Materials documenting the Foundation (3:72-74) include research position papers, minutes and correspondence.
The Associated Negro Press file (3:94) consists primarily of correspondence with Claude A. Barnett, the director of the national news service. The correspondence refers to articles Bond contributed to the A.N.P., as well as to land grant colleges and universities, state appropriations for black institutions of higher education, and Africa. The articles themselves are in 6:50.
In 1944 and 1945 Bond served on a committee with the purpose of producing educational films dealing with race relations. The American Missionary Association and the American Film Center participated in the committee, which was headed by Charles S. Johnson. Materials of the Film Committee (Committee for Mass Education on Race Relations) file (3:166) include correspondence, scenarios for proposed scripts including those by Arna Bontemps and Langston Hughes, minutes and agenda.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People file (3:269-272) documents some of the mutual concerns of the NAACP and Bond over a period of thirty years. These include the issues of federal aid to education in the 1930s, the commissioning of black military officers during the 1940s, the Supreme Court “Brown vs. the Board of Education” suit of the 1950s, and desegregation issues during the 1960s. About one quarter of the file deals with Bond’s historical research into the original interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment for the Supreme Court case.
Materials in the file consist primarily of correspondence, frequently with Clarence Mitchell of the Washington D.C. Bureau and John W. Davis of the Legal Defense and Educational Fund. Additional correspondence concerns the Lincoln University student chapter, and the Philadelphia and Atlanta chapters.
The Race Relations Institute (3:307) is an annual forum of lectures and workshops for bringing the social sciences to people concerned with the improvement of intergroup relations. The Institute began in 1944 and was co-sponsored by divisions of the American Missionary Association and Fisk University. Bond was a lecturer for the Institute on several occasions. Materials in the file include correspondence, programs and brochures.
The Southern Conference on Race Relations (3:361) was an October 1942 meeting of black Southern leaders in Durham, North Carolina to develop a definitive statement regarding race relations issues (partly in order to maintain advances that were assumed would be made by black servicemen during World War 2). Bond was a participant in the conference and a part of the related 1943 subcommittee on agriculture. Materials include correspondence, recommendations for the agricultural subcommittee, and editorial statements.
Materials of the United States Commission on Civil Rights file (3:382) include correspondence, programs, notes, and printed materials relevant especially to Bond’s 1962 paper to the Commission and to his leadership role in the 1967 national conference on race and education. Printed materials also include operational school integration plans in various United States cities.
Included in Series 3 are subject files relating to specific people. These files are significant in terms of the individual’s personal prominence or long-term relationship with Bond, or both. The files consist primarily of correspondence, frequently of a personal nature, biographical information, newspaper clippings and other printed material.
Material relating to W. E. B. Du Bois (3:114-116)–Afro-American educator, author, and early leader of the black civil rights movement–includes correspondence between Bond and Du Bois concerning Crisis articles and the development of the Encyclopedia Africana. Also included are papers about Du Bois written by Bond and others, as well as correspondence and printed material pertaining to memorials to Du Bois after his death in 1963.
Martin Luther King, Jr. (3:257-259), civil rights leader, is represented by a file consisting primarily of information about the organization of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Center in Atlanta. Bond served on the Center’s initial Advisory Council as well as on the advisory council for a secondary element of the Center, the Institute for Afro-American Studies/the Institute of the Black World. Materials include memoranda, minutes, pamphlets describing various phases of the Center and proposals for Center projects.
Lincoln University alumni with whom Bond maintained some contact include Nnamdi Azikiwe (3:98-99), president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria; Kwame Nkrumah (3:289-294), prime minister of Ghana; Thurgood Marshall (3:262), Supreme Court Justice; Langston Hughes (3:224), writer and public speaker; and Lawrence Reddick (3:308-309), curator of the New York Public Library’s Schomburg Collection and longtime friend of Bond.
Historian and sociologist Charles S. Johnson (3:255) corresponded with Bond especially regarding educational research projects and administrative issues.
Other individuals represented in Series 3 include Albert Barnes (3:100-101), philanthropist and benefactor of Lincoln University; and Mary McLeod Bethune (3:102), founder and president of Bethune-Cookman College.
Numerous organizations are represented in Series 3. Many of these files consist of correspondence and other papers relating to Bond’s membership and/or speaking engagements with the organization. Files of particular interest are noted below.
In 1943, Bond established Civicle, a Georgia state organization of black civic leagues, for the purpose of encouraging larger scale planning and stimulating local clubs. The Civicle file (3:106) contains proposed national constitutions, correspondence, agenda, and a proposition for post-World War 2 community facilities.
The United Nations file (3:373) contains materials relevant to Bond’s 1963 appearance as a representative of the American Society of African Culture before a United Nations subcommittee considering policies of apartheid in South Africa. These materials consist primarily of correspondence and printed material of the United Nations, including a summary report of Bond’s statement and discussion (see also 6:14).
The United States Congress file (3:383-384) refers to issues of each decade from 1932 to 1968. Materials include correspondence, especially with Georgia representative Charles L. Weltner in 1964; and copies of various bills, most of which relate to education.
The American Missionary Association file (3:76-77) contains information about the association’s race relations program and Talladega College, an institution the AMA was instrumental in organizing and supporting. Materials include a 1943 report on “Race and Race Relations” by Charles S. Johnson and correspondence dealing with the 1961 observations of the AMA centennial.
Bond’s long-term memberships in several organizations are documented in the files of the Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity (3:256); the Masons (3:264-265); the Sigma Pi Phi fraternity (3:320-322); the Southern Sociological Society (3:365-366); and the Alpha Kappa Mu honor society (3:69).
|Series 4. Institutional Files||1919-1972||21 boxes (33 linear feet)|
The series is arranged in four sections as follows:
Individual files within each section are generally arranged alphabetically by subject or type of material, with exceptions as noted in the container list.
Scope and content:
Series 4 consists primarily of correspondence and printed material relating to the administrative and teaching work done by Bond at several educational institutions, as well as papers regarding institutional histories and community affairs.
Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee is a liberal arts college founded in 1865 by the American Missionary Association. Horace Bond was an instructor in the department of education in 1923 and 1928 to 1929. He was employed as associate professor of education from 1932 to 1934 and as head of the department of education from 1937 to 1939.
Limited material pertaining to Fisk University consists primarily of correspondence of a general nature (4:1-2) and programs, alumni magazines and other publications (4:3-4). Also included is correspondence (4:5) regarding Bond’s attempt to collect photographs of people prominent in black education for a permanent display in the Fisk department of education. The correspondence is arranged alphabetically by the name of the person requested to donate his picture.
Dillard University was created by the merging of Straight University and New Orleans University, with support from the Rosenwald Fund and other foundations. The institution was chartered in 1930; the first classes were held in September 1935. Bond assisted in the planning for the new university and was officially hired as dean in the spring of 1934.
The Dillard University material consists primarily of correspondence (4:6-17) and general administrative records (4:18-22) documenting Bond’s role in the formation of the institution and his subsequent work as a key administrator. Topics dealt with include the faculty, budget, summer school, extension and community work, student affairs, accreditation and admissions policies. The printed material file (4:23-25) contains programs, catalogues, brochures, and announcements, including an address presented at the occasion of the cornerstone laying on 27 May 1934; a booklet of poetry edited by Marcus B. Christian; and copies of The Arts Quarterly published at the school. Papers (4:26) pertaining to James Hardy Dillard, a prominent figure in southern black education, include correspondence with Horace Bond, reprints of articles written by Dillard, minutes of a 1925 conference at which James Dillard represented the Slater and Jeanes Funds, and an address by Bond titled “James Hardy Dillard, A Southern Gentleman.”
In 1962 Bond was invited by Dillard University trustees to prepare an historical statement about the university. Related materials (4:27-29) include correspondence regarding the progress of Bond’s work on the statement, outlines and drafts, correspondence dating from 1935 to 1937 which Bond used as research material, and numerous notes on index cards. Bond’s association with Dillard University after his deanship also included his work as a consultant to Dillard’s teacher education program in 1965 (4:30).
Fort Valley Normal and Industrial School was a private school for blacks aided in large part by philanthropy and by donations of the Episcopal Church. In 1939 the school was transferred to the Georgia State Higher Education System and was renamed Fort Valley State College. Horace Bond was president of the college from 1939 to 1945.
The Fort Valley State College correspondence file (4:32-36) includes general correspondence regarding Rosenwald Fund assistance, the recruitment of faculty, student activities, curriculum, physical maintenance of the college and the development of community programs. Correspondence with the Georgia State Board of Regents discusses subjects ranging from the new state status of the college to the search for Bond’s successor. General administrative records (4:37) include the statutes of the college in a statement of objectives and various reports. Financial records (4:39) and mailing lists (4:41) used during Bond’s tenure supplement the general administrative papers. Bond’s lecture notes (4:40) deal especially with black education and the role of blacks in American life. Printed material (4:43-44) includes copies of the student publication The Peachite, catalogs and newspaper clippings.
While at Fort Valley, Bond managed to maintain funding for the institution from both the state and the Rosenwald Fund, despite political opposition which threatened to bar acceptance of private foundation funds. Georgia governor Herman Eugene Talmadge, a strong advocate of racially separate schools, was a key figure in these controversies. Correspondence and numerous newspaper clippings (4:45) describe his policies and the state of black education in Georgia in the early 1940s. Talmadge visited Fort Valley State College in May 1941; the visit is documented by several photographs (see 7:32).
In 1944 Bond was elected president of the Conference of Presidents of Negro Land Grant Colleges. With that organization, Bond was involved in the planning of educational programs for black soldiers and veterans and in a protest against the exclusion of blacks from a Navy officers training program. Correspondence (4:38) prior to and after his election as Conference president details these activities.
In 1958 Bond began work as dean of the Atlanta University School of Education in Atlanta, Georgia. He became director of the Atlanta University Bureau for Educational and Social Research in 1966.
The Atlanta University files consist primarily of over two hundred genealogy charts and narrative accounts of black family history produced by Horace Bond’s students (4:262a-262i). Bond’s assignment stressed the recording of educational and occupational information. The narratives range from brief descriptions of a single generation to reports on ancestors in slavery. A complete list of students’ names, along with the surnames appearing in their accounts, is contained in Appendix.
Other material relating to Atlanta University is generally less substantive in content than other institutional files. Correspondence (4:222-228) deals mostly with the administrative functions of Bond’s positions–teaching assignments, requests for leaves of absence, student recommendations and other details.
Bond’s interest in teacher education is documented in several files in the Atlanta University section. The National Teacher Examination material (4:239-243) consists primarily of examination registration forms and information booklets. Bond’s efforts to define and promote the university’s teacher education program are described in correspondence and printed material regarding the program (4:271-274), and in correspondence with the Georgia State Department of Education (4:234).
Other files of some interest include proposals presented to the Research Committee headed by Bond (4:247-253); information regarding the development of a doctoral studies program at the School of Education (4:229-230); and correspondence dealing with African visitors to the university (4:218).
Lincoln University in Oxford, Pennsylvania was founded in 1854 to provide “youth of African descent” with a higher education. Horace Mann Bond was president of Lincoln University–the school’s first African American president–from 1946-1957. All administrative records documenting Bond’s tenure at Lincoln were returned to the institution, although a small quantity of documents, letters, and publications were duplicated and the second copy was retained at UMass. As such, the Lincoln materials present at UMass represent only a small portion of those that exist. For the fuller picture of Bond’s presidency at Lincoln, researchers should consult Lincoln University Library’s
Materials retained at UMass from Bond’s presidency at Lincoln include correspondence, Board of Trustees minutes and reports, records from the Office of the President, proposals and reports, and his speeches and writings.
|Series 5. Research Files||1910-1971||15 boxes (7.5 linear feet)|
Series V contains correspondence, data, proposals and reports concerning many of Horace Mann Bond’s research projects. The bulk of the material relates to work during the 1950s and 1960s. Materials are divided into four sections: general, black doctorates study, institutional studies, and testing. Much of the data within files is undated and appears in the form of charts that compare regions, years, institutions, individuals and other factors. These materials are placed at the end of a file with the most complete form of information appearing first.
The general section of the series contains a variety of research topics arranged alphabetically by title or subject. These topics deal with research pursued as early as 1926; data pertains to years as early as 1855.
Many of Bond’s studies emphasized social, economic and geographic influences on educational achievement, especially by black students. The Atlanta school survey (5:2-4), the national merit scholarships file (5:12-15), and the school expenditures, Congressmen file (5:24) demonstrate that approach to educational research.
The Atlanta school survey (5:2-4) represents Bond’s 1957-1962 study of and reactions to an Educational Testing Service analysis titled Learning and Teaching in Atlanta Public Schools for 1955-1956, and to Atlanta’s school desegregation plan in the 1960s. Bond undertook a critical analysis of the report’s standardized test score data to demonstrate the effects of demographic trends in the city on test-measured student “achievement.” Included are Bond’s notes and analyses of test scores, housing-population statistics, socio-economic residence patterns in the city, short articles and an open letter to Atlanta students, and miscellaneous related materials.
The national merit scholarships file (5:12-15) contains correspondence, research data, and other papers regarding Bond’s investigations into the occupational and geographic distribution of national merit scholarship certificate winners and his responses to the United States Senate proposal for the federal funding of such scholarships. The scholarships were to be distributed according to state population figures, and granted on the basis of standardized achievement test scores. Bond proposed that the distribution system excluded students from poor educational and economic backgrounds from the competition. Important writings relating to this work are The Search for Talent (6:45) and “Talent — And Toilets” (5:172-175).
The school expenditures, congressmen file (5:24) consists primarily of charts and graphs which show the per capita income, tax figures and school expenditures by county during the periods of public school education of southern white and black congressmen. Correspondence discusses the educational advantages future white congressmen enjoyed as children while black children were receiving much smaller proportions of monies for school expenditures.
The Mississippi higher education survey (5:11) and the Oklahoma studies file (5:16) include survey-type research. In December of 1944 the newly instituted Board of Trustees of the Mississippi Institutions of Higher Learning sought general information about the status of institutions in the state towards improving their standards and financial support. Bond was involved as one of two consultants to survey black institutions. The file contains correspondence, notes and reports relevant to Bond’s work with the project. A letter written by Bond in 1964 explains the political point of view he took as the only black involved in the project.
The Oklahoma studies file (5:16) contains materials relating to two research studies of black education. The first project was a “Survey of Educational Facilities for Negroes in Oklahoma” carried out by Bond in 1926-1927 under the direction of W. E. B. Du Bois. Materials for this study include numerous photos of black schools in Oklahoma and a partial final report. The second project included in this file involved the standardized testing of children in Langston, Oklahoma in the summer of 1927. This resulted in a November 1927 Crisis article, “Some Exceptional Negro Children.” The file also contains 1961-1962 correspondence regarding Bond’s attempt to identify the current status of the children whose pictures appeared in that article.
The insanity in Chicago file (5:7) is one of several files in the general section of Series V which handles non-school topics. The file includes two 1934 essays, “An Introduction to the Study of Insanity among Negroes in Chicago,” and “Ecological Study of Insanity in the Negro Community.” Other materials in the file include charts of types of psychiatric diagnoses with geographical, sex and other comparisons.
The proposals file (5:19) includes Bond’s notes for potential research projects as well as actual proposals. The file covers a broad range of topics including black patients in the Tennessee State Hospital for the Insane (1934), adult education in selected European countries (1936), and vocational education. Another wide–ranging topic represented in the general section of Series V is the football study file (5:6). This file consists of charts, lists and other papers regarding the National Football League draft selections in 1962 and 1963. The general miscellaneous file (5:8-10) includes note cards and miscellaneous genealogical, demographic and test information.
The black doctorates study section of Series V consists of materials relating to Bond’s formal research of sociological and geographical factors, which contribute to the development of black scholars and professionals. The study became focused in 1958 through funding by the U.S. Office of Education for “A Study of Factors Involved in the Identification and Encouragement of Unusual Academic Talent Among Underprivileged Populations.” Elements of the study’s conceptualization had appeared periodically in Bond’s writings and converged in research leading to his 1957 Harvard University Inglis lecture, “The Search for Talent.” The study included a survey that gathered data about the educational, familial and geographic backgrounds of over 500 black academic and medical doctorates. The report was published through the Office of Education in 1967 and, minimally revised, through a commercial publisher as Black American Scholars in 1972.
Data relating to the identification of black doctorates (5:33), their educational backgrounds (5:34-35), occupational backgrounds (5:36), and birthplaces (5:37-38) appear after the final report. These data consist mainly of undated tables. Where Bond has divided the background data by generation, information about the black doctor him or herself appears before that about parents and grandparents. Of special interest are materials about black doctorates with limited parental educational background (5:35).
Historical data (5:39) contains chronologically arranged correspondence, followed by undated tables recording 19th-century information including free/slave status, class status, and proportions of literate to illiterate blacks.
Bond made extensive inquiries into the history of several specific families included in the black doctorates study. Related correspondence and genealogical data appears in files for each family (5:40-46). Dated correspondence within each file is arranged chronologically; materials such as genealogy charts, lists of names, and reproductions of 19th-century documents are arranged with the most complete genealogies appearing before less complete or supplementary information. The Dibble-Cleveland file (5:46) contains newspapers from 1830, 1839, and 1850.
Bond proposed several follow-up studies to the black doctorates project. A black Americans biographical index (5:47) was intended to create a permanent index at Atlanta University of prominent blacks for use as a resource for future researchers, especially those involved with the five predominantly black colleges of Atlanta. The file for another follow-up study, black family institute (5:48), contains correspondence, tentative budgets and proposals relating to the development of a library-depository, a teaching institute, and research activities related to the black family.
The institutional studies section of Series V contains correspondence, proposals, reports, data charts and other papers documenting Bond’s research into various aspects of particular educational institutions. Individual files in this section are arranged alphabetically by title or subject of each study. Most represent work done in the early 1960s.
The African students survey (5:50-61) is an extensive historical study of African students in predominantly black colleges in the United States. Bond proposed and directed the project, which was sponsored by the United Negro College Fund and the Phelps-Stoke Fund. Research conducted by individual institutions yielded information including names of African students, their nations of origin, and their years of enrollment in the institutions attended. Purposes of the study included analyzing functional attitudes related to Africans in United States black institutions, especially in the south; determining ways to increase recruitment and to facilitate adequate financing for African attendance; and evaluating the usefulness of United States programs for African students.
Material in the general file for this survey (5:50-52) includes correspondence, proposals, outlines, notes and tables indicating changing enrollment figures. Institutional reports in this file (5:53-57) consist of answers to form inquiries, correspondence, notes and charts arranged alphabetically by institution name. Writings (5:58-59) emanating from the study include drafts for Bond’s sixty–one page typescript, “The African Student in the Negro College.” Index cards listing names and years of enrollment for individual students conclude the file.
In 1962, Bond undertook a brief survey for the Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools to determine the number of black college faculty members holding terminal academic degrees. The file for this black college faculty study (5:62-63) consists of chronologically arranged form letters to institutions used to gather data, notes and a final report, followed by completed questionnaires returned to Bond.
The black colleges study file (5:64-65) consists mainly of proposal drafts and notes prepared in 1967 for a possible study of educational experience in predominantly black colleges. Other material includes correspondence and a summary of the exploratory study.
As a part of his Lincoln University administrative involvement with the retention of students from the time of entering college to graduation, and his interest in the cyclical description of cultures, Bond investigated the relationship between student persistence rates and business, economic and historical events. Persistence rates were determined by figuring the percentage of students graduating as compared to the number of entering freshmen four years previous for each year that Lincoln University, Gettysburg College and Bowdoin College had graduating classes. The college persistence rate study (5:66-67) graphs the cycles of male attendance at the three institutions from the time of the 19th-century founding of each until 1957. The study relates these persistence rates to national economic cycles over the same periods of time.
Bond investigated persistence rates in 1949 and again in the mid-1950s. The file contains correspondence, tables, the superimposition of the percentage of students retained over Ayre’s “Economic Cycles” graph, notes, and a copy of Bond’s paper “Historical and Socio–Economic Factors in College Persistence Rates,” presented to the American Research Association in 1962.
The institutional studies miscellaneous file (5:68) includes a 1927 paper, “The Enrollment of Negro Students in the High Schools and Colleges of Some Northern States,” figures for male enrollment at Howard University in 1952 and 1954, annotated bibliographic cards of various publications between 1948 and 1961 dealing mainly with academic achievement and economic factors of college attendance, and undated charts giving enrollment figures at twenty-two southern colleges.
The test score comparisons file (5:70-71) consists primarily of tables and statistical charts which compare median standardized test scores by educational institution by race, and by political and geographic regions in the United States.
The testing section of Series V contains correspondence, data summaries, and other material relating to Bond’s investigations involving standardized tests and testing. Most of the files are copies of various forms of standardized tests and of printed materials published by test manufacturers. Files are arranged alphabetically by name of test or research project.
Study of the implications of Army classification tests for education and educational institutions affected a number of Bond’s research projects, especially the black doctorates study. Correspondence, a report and data make up the Army tests study file (5:72).
The California tests file (5:73-76) contains 1957, 1959, and 1962 standardized test forms, miscellaneous manuals, scoring keys and other printed material of the California Test Bureau.
The Graduate Record Examination files (5:77-79) consist of miscellaneous tabulated scores for Lincoln and Atlanta Universities, comparison tables or scores in major subject fields, and correspondence and notes relating to characteristics of the examinations and Bond’s observations about them; also included are printed materials such as G.R.E. Bulletins, handbooks, and leaflets. The bulk of the file consists of Educational Testing Service printed material (5:78-79).
Operation Close-Gap (5:81-90) was a study to determine the effect of filmstrip instruction on the reading achievement levels of elementary school students. The project was coordinated by a Georgia state educational research committee, of which Bond was a member. In addition to the recording of reading test scores for 10,000 Georgia children, information regarding parental education and occupation, and the education levels of teachers was noted. As a member of the research committee, Bond was involved in a proposal to the Southeastern Education Corporation to tabulate and establish relationships between reading achievement and this additional data.
Operation Close-Gap general file (5:81-82) consists primarily of reports and proposals. The data files (5:83-90) contain tabulations of test scores, educational and occupational data arranged by grade level and school, and summaries of the information tabulated by grade level only. The information sheets on which data for individual students was recorded are located in Series X, Restricted Files.
|Series 6. Writings||1926-1972||10 boxes (5.5 linear feet)|
Series 6 consists primarily of addresses, articles, books, book reviews, newspaper articles, letters to editors, autobiographical sketches and miscellaneous items written by Horace Mann Bond. Individual writings are arranged according to the eight types noted above, and chronologically within those types by date of presentation, publication or completion. Materials pertaining to a particular work generally include the item in its most complete or published form, followed by any available working papers–outlines, drafts and research materials. Correspondence dealing with the publication of a particular writing follows all other papers regarding the writing. In a few cases, papers relating to an essay or article occupy more than one folder. Although the majority of material written by Horace Bond is located in this series, other items such as research reports and Lincoln University histories appear elsewhere in the collection. Appendix provides a complete list of writings in the collection, with exact locations other than Series 6 noted.
Although several of the addresses appear only in outline form, the whole is a fairly complete representation of Bond’s speaking career. Topics include race relations and the status of blacks in America, political movements in Africa, Afro-American relations, the history of black higher education, and sociological factors influencing academic talent. The addresses range in time from a 1935 speech given in Bogalusa, Louisiana (6:1) to a presentation in Pensacola, Florida on 11 May 1969 (6:16). The majority of the addresses, however, fall into the period 1945 to 1963, covering in particular Bond’s years as Lincoln University president. Correspondence regarding Bond’s appearances before educational institutions and organizations, community groups, church congregations, alumni associations and other audiences is located in the “Engagements” file in Series 3.
The articles in Series 6 include formal papers presented at professional meetings, as well as numerous other published and unpublished manuscripts. The topics dealt with are similar to those represented in Bond’s addresses, with a greater concentration on the history of black higher education. The earliest dated article in the series appears in the October 1927 issue of The Crisis magazine under the title “Some Exceptional Negro Children” (6:17). Bond’s extensive 1969 rebuttal (6:35-37) of a paper written by Christopher Jencks and David Riesman on the American black college is the final dated article in the series.
Also included in the articles file is a reprint of “The Influence of Personalities on the Public Education of Negroes in Alabama, I” (6:19), the first of a two-part article published in 1937 and based on Bond’s PhD. thesis work. Among several articles regarding Africa is “Reflections, Comparative, on West African Nationalist Movements” (6:23), a paper presented by Bond at the First Congress of Black Writers, Scholars and Artists in 1956 in Paris.
Copies of books written by Horace Bond and related correspondence make up the books file of Series 6. These publications are concerned mainly with the history of black education and the origins of academic talent. Correspondence referring to the 1934 publication of Bond’s first book, The Education of the Negro in the American Social Order (6:39-42), consists primarily of the letters of Bond and the Prentice-Hall Company discussing market potential and advertising. In 1939 Bond’s PhD. thesis was published as Negro Education in Alabama: A Study in Cotton and Steel (6:43-44); it was reprinted in 1969. These published versions, in addition to some miscellaneous research notes, are the only material in the collection pertaining to the thesis. While at Fort Valley State College, Bond compiled Education for Production: A Textbook on How to be Healthy, Wealthy and Wise (6:45). The book stresses the need for increased food production in low-income areas, and explains profitable food production programs.
The Search for Talent (6:46), the book form of Bond’s Inglis Lecture at Harvard University, was issued by that university in 1959. A typed manuscript of the 1957 address follows the book in the file. Both the 1967 U.S. Office of Education publication (6:47) and the 1972 commercially published report (6:48) of Bond’s black doctorates study also appear in the books file. Relevant research materials for these books are in Series V.
Horace Bond’s book reviews (6:49-50) date primarily from the late 1950s, with subjects ranging from the General Education Board to blacks in medicine.
In the early 1930s Bond was employed as a writer for the Associated Negro Press. The articles he produced, primarily on educational topics, appear in both manuscript and printed form and make up the bulk of the newspaper articles file (6:51). Correspondence with A.N.P. director Claude Barnett is in 3:94.
Bond was also a frequent contributor to newspaper “Letters to the Editor” columns. Many of his letters (6:52-54) deal with the misrepresentation of blacks in newspaper reporting and the inferior treatment extended to blacks by both government and private concerns.
The autobiographical sketches (6:55) are among the most personal writings in the collection. The sketches concentrate mainly on the teaching Bond received as a child from his grandmother and aunt. A segment written around 1932 titled “Notes on myself by myself” covers his activities in more detail up to that date. Included in the one folder of sketches are several autobiographical notes in r6sum6 form.
The miscellaneous writings (6:56-58) consist of radio scripts, poems, a play (of which Bond was probably the author) and a few short character sketches from the early 1930s.
Series 6 also contains bibliographies of his writings prepared by Bond (6:59), and general correspondence with publishers (6:60-61) pertaining to proposed writings and writings for which no papers other than correspondence exist.
In addition to the manuscript and printed materials in Series 6 is a sound recording (6:7) of Bond’s address at Xavier University in North Carolina on 30 May 1951.
|Series 7. Photographs and Film||1913-1979||3 boxes (1.5 linear feet)|
Series 7 is divided into six sections: Africa, Dillard University, Fort Valley State College, Lincoln University, the Rosenwald Fund Survey, and miscellaneous. Within each section, files are arranged in two chronological sequences: those containing photographs in which Horace Bond or his family appear, and those containing photographs in which he is not pictured. Each photograph is identified on the back by series and folder number along with any available information on the content of the photograph. The number of items in each folder appears in parentheses following the folder title in the container listing and on the folder. Cross-reference sheets indicating the location of relevant photographs in Series 7 have been placed in related files throughout the collection.
Scope and content:
The first section of the series includes photographs taken by Horace Bond and others in Africa, as well as photographs of African-related events and subjects: Kwame Nkrumah (7:7, 13) a United Nations conference (7:4), and an American Society for African Culture meeting (7:25). Contained in this section are several photographs of the International African American Corporation’s mining operations in Liberia (7:20-23), and numerous picture postcards (7:14, 29) presumably collected by Bond during a trip to the continent.
Three sections of Series 7 represent educational institutions with which Bond was affiliated. Photographs relating to Fort Valley State College consist primarily of those depicting a visit to the college by Governor Herman Eugene Talmadge, an advocate of racially separate schools (7:32-33). Lincoln University photographs include several of African students (7:36, 37, 41), as well as a few collected by Bond during the preparation of the Lincoln University history (7:40, 42-47).
The Rosenwald Fund survey photographs consist of those taken during Bond’s travels in North Carolina, Louisiana and Alabama for the Fund from 1929 to 1931. Nearly one hundred black rural school buildings are pictured in print or, in most cases, negative form. In several instances, students appear in the photograph. Bond has noted the geographical location of each building on the prints; however, none of the negatives are identified as to location.
The miscellaneous section consists primarily of photographs of Bond at various meetings and conferences. Also included are numerous single images of Bond for publicity, passport and other purposes (7:65-67). Of interest are photographs of Julia and Julian Bond taken during the dedication of the Horace Mann Bond Center for Equal Education at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst on 22 October 1979. On that day the official announcement of the acquisition of the Bond Papers by the University was made.
Part of Bond’s first trip to Africa in 1949, his visit to Lagos, Nigeria, was filmed by the Nigerian government under the title “An African Comes Home,” a 12-minute silent black and white film with captions. Folder 73 contains a 3/4″ videotape copy; the original re-mains in the possession of the Bond family.
|Series 8. Printed Material||1912-1971||4 boxes (2 linear feet)|
Series V3 consists of printed material for which no relevant subject files exist elsewhere in the collection. The series is divided into five sections: monographs, journals, newsletters, publishers’ catalogues, and miscellaneous material. Monographs, several of which are reprints of articles sent to Bond by friends and colleagues, are arranged alphabetically by author. Journals and newsletters are arranged alphabetically by title. Publishers’ catalogues and miscellaneous printed items are arranged chronologically by date of issue. Most of the material in this series deals with the theory and practice of education, although items such as the Journal of the National Medical Association, the Viet-Nam Bulletin, and literary criticism written by W. Farrison are also included.
|Series 9. Oversized Material||1931-1971||2 boxes (2 linear feet)|
Scope and content:
Series 9 consists primarily of single issues of newspapers. Most of the newspapers are African publications, originating in Ghana and Nigeria. The political career of Kwame Nkrumah is reported in many of these papers, including the Evening News which was founded by Nkrumah. Several United States publications are also represented, as in a Philadelphia Tribune supplement (13 Feb 1954) commemorating the Lincoln University centennial. Also included are 1930s issues of The Union, a Cincinnati-based newspaper that published articles written by Bond and other Associated Negro Press journalists.
Other oversize material includes undated Atlanta University students’ genealogies for which copies could not be made. Cross-reference sheets indicating the existence of the genealogies appear in folders labeled with the appropriate family names in Series 4.
|Series 10. Restricted Material||1920-1966||7 boxes (3.5 linear feet)|
Restrictions on access:
Series X consists of individually identified student test scores and other material which, for reasons of confidentiality, have been restricted. Requests for access to restricted materials should be addressed to the University of Massachusetts archivist.
The series is divided into two main sections: files relating to the institutions represented in Series 4 and files pertaining to the research projects documented in Series V. Included in this section are computer cards containing information on the National Teachers Examination (X:10-12), gathered by Bond while at Atlanta University. Research-related files include computer cards relating to the black doctorates study (X:18) and scores from several tests (X:13-16), especially those used in Operation Close-Gap (X:17). The Operation Close-Gap files also contain information regarding the education and occupation of the parents of each student involved in the project. Summaries of the Operation Close-Gap results, not identified by individual student, appear in Series V.
|Series 11. Originals of Copied Material||7 boxes (5 linear feet)|
Series 11 contains the original copies of materials that have been copied onto acid-free 8.5 x 11″ paper for preservation and to facilitate use of very large oversize materials. The copies are located in normal series order in Series I, 3, 4, V, and 6, while the originals have been grouped in Series 11 for reference when the copies are not adequate for research.
Newspaper clippings by and about Dr. Bond and on subjects of interest to him are the most numerous items that have been copied. There are also a number of typed materials of Horace Bond’s brother James Palmer Bond, on impermanent paper.
One of the most interesting parts of this series is the family histories prepared by Dr. Bond’s students at Atlanta University. In order to include family trees as extensive as the students could verify, the histories have been prepared on very large, in some cases huge, sheets of paper and in colorful format. The information contained is available in the copies in Series 4. Although the originals are so large that most of them have been folded many times to fit into a 20-inch manuscript box, and consequently they are subject to rapid destruction by use that requires unfolding, the originals of the histories have been kept to provide an idea of the nature of the work that went into creating them.